The Technology of Cooling Part 4: Closed Loop Liquid Cooling Solutions

1. Air to Water Heat Exchangers

Pfannenberg Air to Water Heat Exchangers use a supplied water source to remove the heat from the electrical cabinet. The heat from the enclosure is transferred to fluid and the heated fluid is then piped away adding no heat to the ambient environment.  Because there is no heat transfer to the ambient environment, there is no need to de-rate the units performance in high ambient conditions.

 

How do I know if a Air to Water Heat Exchanger is the right product for my application?

  • If there is a chilled water supply readily available at the enclosure.
  • If the environment has extreme conditions like extremely high ambients, extremely dirty or caustic, that make other systems not applicable.

 
Properly sizing a Air to Water Heat Exchanger

To properly size an Air to Water Heat Exchanger you must know the required cooling capacity in Watts, available water temperature and the dimensions of the unit and enclosure.

 

Utilizing performance curves to properly size cooling units:

Pfannenberg utilizes the DIN standard 35/35 °C when rating our cooling units. Many other companies use 50/50 °C, which provides a higher, non-usable value. Customers should use their own application temperatures to determine the proper cooling capacity of the system.

 
Important information when utilizing Air to Water Heat Exchangers for enclosure cooling:

  • The performance of an Air to water Heat Exchanger is directly related to the difference in the water temperature and the air temperature inside the enclosure.
  • To manage condensation, an external condensation evaporator (KVDTX) can be used.
  • The enclosure should be sealed to prevent the inflow of ambient air.
  • Use the door contact switch to impede operation with open doors and consequent excessive accumulation of condensation.
  • Setting the temperature to the lowest setting is not the optimal solution due to the condensation issues. The value we have preset on the cooling unit is a sound compromise between cooling the inside of the enclosure and the accumulation of condensation.
  • Make sure unit is level.

2. Chillers

A chiller uses a refrigeration cycle to remove the collected heat from a circulating liquid. As the liquid moves through a system of tubes and pipes it absorbs the heat generated by equipment and processes.  This generated heat is then transferred by the liquid back to the chiller where it is dissipated. Fluid is cooled and sent back into the system.

 

How do I know if a Chiller is the right product for my application?

  • When higher heat loads that exceed traditional enclosure cooling methods need to be managed.
  • When precise temperature control is required as part of the manufacturing process.
  • Large fluctuations in heat load requirements need to be managed.
  • It allows the source of cooling to be located separately from harsh environments.

 

Selecting the correct Pfannenberg Chiller

Choosing the best packaged chiller to meet the demanding requirements of today’s industrial applications can be complicated. For that reason, Pfannenberg designed a 6 step guide to help you select the best chiller depending on your environment, process and type of application. Click on the picture to open the PDF or use this link!

 

Important information when utilizing Chillers:

  • Chillers can be installed indoors if the area around the unit is relatively clean and the air is temperate.
  • Locating the chiller outside can be a good option and can improve the efficiency of the chiller depending on temperature.
  • Extreme temperatures can cause capacity issues or the need for additional options such as a low ambient package.
  • A chiller should be sized as close to the required capacity based on the desired chilled liquid supply temperature and the highest expected ambient temperature.

3. Combined Chillers and Air to Water Heat Exchangers

liquid_cooling_3D.jpg

When a Liquid Cooling Source is not available on site, use the combination of chillers and air/water heat exchangers to simplify the cooling of your processes, machines and controllers as part of a system based solution.

Via a closed pipeline system that uses a highly economical supply of cooled liquid (e.g. water, glycol or oil) as the cooling medium, temperature can be managed within your process and as the cooling medium for the air conditioning of control cabinets. When cooling cabinets with PWS Air/Water Heat Exchangers the thermal management is 100% independent from the ambient temperatures at the installation location.

Click here for more detailed information about Closed Loop Liquid Cooling Solutions!


A properly selected Thermal Management is key to guarantee the longevity of critical electronics. Pfannenberg place the klowledge and technical expertise of its engineers at your disposal for you to find the best solutions for your requirements.

Find the 3 previous articles of this “Technology of Cooling” serie:

Topics: Air Water Heat ExchangersEnclosure CoolingWater CoolingChillers

The Technology of Cooling Part 3: Cooling with Closed Loop Cooling Units


Pfannenberg cooling units operate on the principle of the Carnot cycle. This means that the cooling units function as a heat pump that “pumps” the thermal energy transferred from the electronic cabinet (heat dissipated from the components) up to a higher level of temperature (the ambient temperature can reach levels as high as + 55 °C). The air inside the enclosure is cooled down by the evaporator and at the same time dehumidified.

How do I know if a cooling unit is the right product for my application?

  • If the ambient temperature is greater than the target internal temperature of the enclosure, active cooling is required.
  • If indoor NEMA Type 12 applications, NEMA Type 3R/4 outdoor applications and NEMA Type 4/4x stainless steel for washdown applications are required – closed loop cooling can maintain the NEMA Type rating of the cabinet.

Properly sizing a cooling unit

To properly size your cooling units you must know the required cooling capacity in Watts, mounting requirements (side, integrated or top mount) and the dimensions of the cooling unit and enclosure.

Utilizing performance curves to properly size cooling units:

> Pfannenberg utilizes the DIN standard 35/35 °C when rating our cooling units.

> Many other companies use 50/50 °C, which provides a higher, non-usable value. Customers should use their own application temperatures to determine the proper cooling capacity of the system.

 

 

 


Important information when utilizing cooling units:

  • The refrigeration capacity should exceed the dissipation loss from the installed components by approximately 10%.
  • The enclosure should be sealed to prevent the inflow of ambient air.
  • Use the door contact switch to impede operation with open doors and consequent excessive accumulation of condensation.
  • Use cooling units with maximum clearance between air inflow and air outflow to prevent poor circulation.
  • Make sure that the air inflow and air outflow in the external circuit is not hindered, preventing proper heat exchanging at the condenser.
  • When using top-mounted cooling units, make sure that components with their own fans do not expel the air directly into the cooling units cool air outflow.
  • Make sure unit is level.
  • Setting the temperature to the lowest setting is not the optimal solution due to the condensation issues. The value we have preset on the cooling unit is a sound compromise between cooling the inside of the enclosure and the accumulation of condensation.

In harsh environments involving high temperatures, wash-down requirements, heavy particulate matter or the presence of chemicals capable of damaging components (NEMA 4 or 12 environments), ambient air must be kept out of the enclosure. Pfannenberg Cooling Units seals out the ambient air, cooling and re-circulating clean, cool air throughout the enclosure.

Pfannenberg offers Critical Thermal Management Solutions for Maximum uptime and efficiency.

Find the previous articles of this “Technology of Cooling” serie: Cooling with Filterfans® and Cooling with Closed Loop Air to Air Heat Exchangers.

Read the last part of this “Technology of Cooling” serie: Closed Loop Liquid Cooling Solutions

 

Topics: Enclosure CoolingCooling UnitsThermal Management

The Technology of Cooling Part 2: Cooling with Closed Loop Air to Air Heat Exchangers


Closed Loop Cooling and particularly Air to air heat exchangers are used when the complete separation between the enclosure and the environment is required and the internal enclosure temperature to be cooled can be higher than the ambient. The air to air units have a rating showing how much heat can be removed based on the difference in the ambient and the internal temperatures. This is traditionally rated on W/°C which is the watts of heat that the unit can remove per temperature difference in °C.

How do I know if an air to air heat exchanger is the right product for my application?

  • If the ambient temperature is lower than the desired temperature inside the enclosure.
  • If a total separation between ambient air and enclosure air is required.

Properly sizing an air to air heat exchanger

To properly size an air to air heat exchanger you must know the required cooling capacity in Watts, target temperature rise over ambient and the dimensions of the heat exchanger and enclosure.


Utilizing performance curves to properly size air/air heat exchangers:

> Pfannenberg utilizes watts of heat that the unit can remove per temperature difference in °C.

Customers should use their own application temperatures to determine the proper cooling capacity of the system.


PAI_drawing.jpg

Important information when utilizing air/air heat exchangers:

  • The max ambient is 35 °C (95 °F) and the max internal temperature that the system can take is 45 °C (113 °F).
  • Can be used when the temperature difference is 10 °C.
  • If you apply this temperature difference to the rating of the air to air unit you will get the total amount of heat that can be removed.
  • A unit rated 100 W/°C could remove 1000 Watts (100 x 10) of heat under these conditions.

Closed Loop Cooling with air to air heat exchangers is the most efficient cooling solution as cooling with ambient air is the most economical type of cooling!

Pfannenberg εCOOL Air to air Heat Exchangers feature an energy efficient, minimal maintenance design. Installation and maintenance of these units requires much less time compared to other closed loop Thermal Management solutions.

Click here to read the 1st part of this “Technology of Cooling” serie: Cooling with Filterfans®
Click here to read the 3rd part of this “Technology of Cooling” serie: Cooling with Closed Loop Cooling Units

Topics: Enclosure CoolingCooling UnitsThermal Management

Download Pfannenberg’s NEW 2016 Thermal Management Catalog!


We are excited to announce the release of our NEW NORTH AMERICAN CATALOG. In this catalog we take a Solutions First approach to helping you understand how to choose the best Thermal Management products for your applications.


> New sections for Engineered Solutions and Industry Group Specific Solutions.
> Shared expertise to find the best solution for any type of application and environment.
> Easily determine the correct thermal management products for your application and environment.
> New high resolution detailed product pictures with cut-aways.

 

Get Pfannenberg Catalog


Pfannenberg, Inc. is a global manufacturer of thermal management, water cooling solutions and signaling technology. For more than 60 years, our enclosure cooling products have been helping some of the largest companies worldwide stay cool and safe, protecting and keeping electronic equipment running to avoid costly downtime.

In addition to our thermal management products we also manufacture visual and audible signaling devices for security, industrial fire, building, industrial process, disaster warning, hazardous areas, light art and illumination. Our business philosophy – Protecting man, machine and the environment.

To learn more about how we can help you, contact us today! We have a wide range of expertise to share with you.

 

Topics: Enclosure CoolingThermal ManagementNorth America

The Technology of Cooling Part 1: Cooling with Filterfans®


If the installation is in a clean, non-hazardous environment with an acceptable ambient (outside the enclosure) temperature range, a simple forced-air cooling system utilizing outside air is usually adequate. Combined with an air filter, such devices generally meet the heat removal needs of typical electronic equipment and many electrical applications. 


How do I know if a Filterfan® is the right product for my application?

  • If the temperature rise inside the enclosure can be higher than the ambient
  • If multiple configurations are needed. Filterfans® can be located in a number of locations within complex enclosure configurations.

Calculating the required airflow

To properly size a Filterfan® it’s important to understand how static pressure effects the performance of a fan.


Understanding CFM

CMF describes the volume flow rate of compressed air. We can define 3 different CFM:

  • CFM1: Fan Only (unfiltered)
  • CFM2: Filterfan® Assembly (uninstalled)
  • CFM3: Filterfan® Installed on an enclosure with one filtered exhaust assembly
    (Note: Always calculate cooling capacity of Filterfans® with the CFM3 value)


Utilizing Filterfans® for Enclosure Cooling 

  • Always use the Filterfans® to propel the cool ambient air into enclosure.
  • Slight positive pressure builds up inside the cabinet so that only air filtered by the Filterfans® flows into the enclosure.
  • The air propelled into the cabinet displaces the warm air which exits through the exhaust filter.
  • When installing a combination of Filterfans® and exhaust filters, fit the Filterfans® in the lower third of the cabinet and the exhaust filter(s) near the top of the cabinet.

Utilization examples

CFM : Filterfan® + Exhaust Filter CFM : Filterfan® + 2 Exhaust Filters CFM : Filterfan® + intake + Filterfan® Exhaust

 

Part 1 of our Thermal Management Solutions, Pfannenberg’s Filterfans® incorporate modern louvers which enable maximal airflow, hold back dust/flour and water particles, protect the filter medium from damage and can be integrated into the design of the application. Filterfans are an ideal cooling solution when the ambient air is always lower than the temperature required in the electrical enclosure. This assists the natural convection of the air and avoids hot spots withing the enclosure.

Pfannenberg is the inventor of the Filterfan®, with 50 years of experience and continuous development. Trust in the Original


Read the 2nd part of our Thermal Management Tips: Cooling with Closed Loop Air to Air Heat Exchangers

Topics: FilterfansEnclosure CoolingThermal Management

Pfannenberg Invests in Industrial IoT (Internet of Things) Software Development Company


As companies move forward implementing Industry 4.0 infrastructures and strategies, the need for connected equipment grows. Companies will require the ability for systems to support remote monitoring, firmware updates and preventative maintenance diagnostics. Working with Cybus (Hamburg, Germany) we will be able to meet the IoT needs of our customers.

Pfannenberg CEO Andreas Pfannenberg said: “We have been completely persuaded by the abilities of the team and by the solution from Cybus which bridges the gap between the extremely high demands of industry and cutting-edge internet technology. It offers huge potential for the development of new services. Even as a well-established SME, we will be able to learn a lot from this project.”

Cybus CEO Pierre Manière stated: “Apart from the investment itself, Pfannenberg represents a tremendous strategic gain for us. Its wide-ranging experience of the sector and our shared understanding of the importance of industrial solutions are of great benefit to us.”

Topics: Internet of ThingsIoTIndustrial InternetIndustry 4.0